My Programming Escapades
Andraz Bajt
Making a programming language Part 3 - adding features

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So now I have a repl that can evaluate stuff like


Not much of a programming language

  • more like a calculator, and not even a good one. Lets add some features!


Like pi, e and such. I have to change the grammar to match identifiers too.

Now I have

private def factor: Parser[Expression] = number | ("(" ~> expr <~ ")")

And I change that to

private def factor: Parser[Expression] = value | parenExpr
private def value: Parser[Expression] = number | identifier
private def identifier: Parser[Identifier] = "[a-zA-Z]\\w*".r ^^ {
  s => Identifier(s)

and I also added a new token type

case class Identifier(id: String) extends Expression

and enabled this in evaluator\

case Identifier(name) => {
  StdLib(name) match {
    case Some(v: Double) => v
    case _ => throw new SemanticError(name + " not found")

StdLib is just a map object. I went the python way - variables(and constants) are entries in a global dictionary. Just a decision I made while implementing this. As I said, I don't have a plan, I don't know what I'm doing and I don't know how stuff is done. How hard can it be?! (Top Gear anyone?)


Another math feature. It's more of a test for myself to see if I understand grammars. Especially how to make a grammar not left-recursive. Because apparently such grammars don't work with RDP. I turned out I don't understand grammars.

private def exponent: Parser[Expression] =
  (value | parenExpr) ~ "^" ~ (value | parenExpr) ^^ {
    case a ~ "^" ~ b => Exponent(a,b)

private def factor: Parser[Expression] = (value ||| exponent) | parenExpr

The ||| operator is an ugly hack. It tries both sides and returns the longer match. By the time I was writing this I didn't know that order is importat. If I just wrote exponent | value it would have worked, because expoenent would match a value anyway and then failed on missing ^.

Token and evaluation(uses math.pow) for this are quite trivial.

Function calls

case class ExpList(lst: List[Expression]) extends Expression
case class FunctionCall(name: Identifier, args: ExpList) extends Expression

Simple: function call is a name and list of expressions to evaluate for arguments(wrapped because even an expression list is an expression)


  private def arglist: Parser[ExpList] = "(" ~> list <~ ")"
  private def functionCall: Parser[FunctionCall] = identifier ~ arglist ^^ {
    case id ~ args => FunctionCall(id, args)
  private def value: Parser[Expression] = number | (identifier ||| functionCall)

Again, I was having trouble - parser just didn't work and resorted to |||. functionCall should come before identifier.

Evaluating this is more interesting. I decided to make functions be values too for obvious reasons -> higher order functions(I'm into functional programming, remember?). So function values must be stored in same “namespace”. StdLib(the only “namespace”) required to become of type Map[String,Any]. I will have to do pattern matching anyway since this will be dynamic-typed language. (Yes this is a plan, I think it's easier to implement. Static typing ftw, but that's next project). And I needed a type for function values to pattern match on - I went with Any=>Any and sending in List(arg0,arg1,…) doing more pattern matching inside the function. Will be slow but hey…dynamic typing!

from evaluator

case FunctionCall(name, args) => {
  StdLib( match {
    case Some(f: FunctionVarArg) => f.apply(apply(args))
    case None => throw new ScratSemanticError("function " + name + "not found")

and and example function in StdLib\

type FunctionVarArg = Any => Any
lazy val ln: FunctionVarArg = {
  case (d: Double) :: Nil => math.log(d)
  case other => throw ScratInvalidTypeError("expected single double but got " + other)


As clearly illustrated above, not planning your grammar results in constant changes in many places. So if you're doing something serious just make the whole fricking grammar on a whiteboard beforehand. Seriously. I still only have a calculator, but a much more powerful one. I can write expressions like \


But that's nearly not enough. I want to be Touring-complete an ideally to be able to compile/interpret itself.\

next: Hello World(strings, printing and interpreter)

Last modified on 2012-08-31