My Programming Escapades
Andraz Bajt
Approaches to designing a Haskell API

Recently I've been thinking about the design of programming interfaces, especially in Haskell. But don't let the title misguide you; this is not supposed to be a tutorial or a guide but simply an showcase of different styles. Feel free to tell me I'm wrong or missed something.

The problem

Let's say we are writing an interface to RESTful web service. Our goal is to create type safe functions and descriptive models but all in all easy to use.

The service should be simple so our examples are kept small. So let's have a single resource that supports POST and GET on single items. In pure Haskell it would look like

newtype Id = Id Integer
data Record = Record { ... }

get :: Id -> Record
create :: Record -> Id

But this functions couldn't possibly be pure since they should be talking to our service, so we have to adapt this interface.

The OO way

Our functions should at the very least take some sort of a client as an input. Let's define a client that does raw JSON requests to our service. This is just a rough sketch so we have something to work with

type Client = Method -> Path -> Maybe RequestBody -> IO Response

Our API would now look like

get :: Client -> Id -> IO Record
get client id = fromJSON <$> client "GET" (show id) Nothing

create :: Client -> Record -> IO Id
create client record =
  fromJSON <$> client "POST" "" $ Just $ toJSON record

Which is actually not bad. We presume our service (or the network) will never fail, we push the burden of managing the client to the user and we clutter every function's signature with Client but we could do worse. On the up side we can now use this in a object-oriented-looking way.

client `get` someRecordId


Everything is better with monads right? So we can define a monad to replace the client. What's the essence of the client? It carries some configuration and has the ability to perform IO. So we build a monad that can do these two things. And since I'm lazy I'll just do

type ClientM = ReaderT ClientConfig IO

But there is a problem. It is impossible to write an IO transformer so this new monad will have to be the base of the monad transformer stack. And this hurts modularity. Can we do better? Yes! Let's just do a monad class

class Monad m => MonadClient m where
  rawRequest :: Method -> Path -> Maybe RequestBody -> m Response

and we can provide a way to run this again with Reader and IO.

instance (MonadReader ClientConfig m, MonadIO m) => MonadClient m where
  rawRequest method path body = do
    conf <- ask
    liftIO $ ...

But now we can do better. We can write an instance for running tests that doesn't perform IO but instead simulates the service locally.

This is somewhat lighter for the user since he doesn't need to manage the client any more neither does he need to use the client for every request. He just need to put configuration and IO into his monad stack.


Can we push the monad class approach further? Let's take a look at the mtl library. It provides classes of operations for every monad. We can write a class for our whole service.

class MonadClient m where
  get :: Id -> m Record
  create :: Record -> m Id

And now implement this in terms of our first (naive) implementation which is not directly exported any more. User only sees the class and gets an instance that will work with the configuration and ability to perform IO. This now makes it very easy to write an instance that uses State (or something similar) to simulate the service for testing without bothering with JSON and other implementation details of the actual service.

But it also has a downside. Imagine a bigger service with multiple resources. The class will explode and become unwieldy. Also making the implementation harder. If the implementor wants to support another backend he now has a big instance to write. If he wants to add a method he now has several instances to fix. Sound a bit like the expression problem.

Purity to the rescue

A good way to structure your code is to separate pure functions from impure actions and minimize the latter.

One way to do this is to make a pure description of requests and responses. Then define a uniform intermediate representation that works well with our protocol and the client that actually does the requests. Only the client needs to perform any effects, all other code can now be pure.

data Request = RequestGet Id | RequestCreate Record
data Resp = ResponseGet Record | ResponseCreate Id

data Raw = Raw Method Path (Maybe RequestBody)

toRaw :: Request -> Raw
toRaw (RequestGet id) = Raw "GET" (show id) Nothing
toRaw (RequestCreate record) = Raw "POST" "" $ Just $ toJSON record

fromResponse :: Response -> Resp

client :: Raw -> IO Response

request :: Request -> IO Resp
request r = fromResponse <$> client (toRaw r)

But this is terrible. First of all the fromResponse function is hard to write. But most importantly the request function is horribly unsafe. We cannot ensure the response will match the request.


To ensure this we need generalised algebraic datatypes.

data Request resp where
  RequestGet :: Id -> Request Record
  RequestCreate :: Record -> Request Id

data Raw a = Raw Method Path (Maybe RequestBody) (JSON -> a)

toRaw :: Request a -> Raw a
toRaw (RequestGet id) = Raw "GET" (show id) Nothing fromJSON
toRaw (RequestCreate record) = Raw "POST" "" (Just $ toJSON record ) fromJSON

client :: Raw -> IO Response

request :: Request a -> IO a
request r = parse <$> client raw where
  raw@(Raw _ _ _ parse) = toRaw

There are two things going on here. First we encode the type of response into the request so request can be safe. Second we use that type information that is locally available inside toRaw to pick the right instance for decoding JSON and put the specialised function into the raw representation.

We now have it all: safety, modularity (we can write tests in terms of pure requests and responses), we can simply plug a new backend and even explicitly talk about requests since they are just plain old values.

But we cannot statically determine the type of the request nor can we simply add a new type of request. Former being a philosophical remark and latter a real world requirement. We've again hit the expression problem. If we add a request we need to modify existing code in all functions creating an intermediate representation (or working directly with requests). At least adding a new backed is very simple since it only depends on the intermediate representation.

Type classes revisited

We want to be able to statically enforce types of requests. This is simply achieved if we define a single constructor type for every request instead of a sum type of all requests. But now we cannot have a function to convert it into an intermediate form. But we can have a type class. Moreover using multi param type classes and functional dependencies we can encode the type of result for each request and require the instances to parse the result from the intermediate form. Functional dependencies will ensure we can always compute the result type from the request type.

data Get = Get Id
data Create = Create Record

data Raw = Raw Method Path (Maybe RequestBody)

class RequestRaw req resp where
  toRaw :: req -> Raw
  fromResponse :: Response -> resp

instance RequestRaw Get Record where
  toRaw (Get id) = Raw "GET" (show id) Nothing
  fromResponse = fromJSON

instance RequestRaw Create Id where
  toRaw (Create record) = Raw "POST" "" (Just $ toJSON record )
  fromResponse = fromJSON

client :: Raw -> IO Response

request :: RequestRaw req resp => req -> IO resop
request r = fromResponse <$> client (toRaw r)

I believe we achieved our goal. We can add a new request without modifying existing code by simply adding new instances. And we can still add new backends that only rely on the intermediate form. We still can have pure tests and as a bonus big APIs will not require giant functions anymore, we can even break them up into several modules.


I added this section after reddit user aaronlevin reminded me I forgot about the Free monad.

The essence of using free is building a pure description of the whole program and then writing an interpreter to run it. You can use FreeT transformer if you want to mix in some other effects.

We start of by defining a functor that specifies our language. I defined the structure and derived the Functor instance since it's trivial.

data ApiF f = RequestGet Id (Record -> f)
            | RequestCreate Record (Id -> f)
            deriving Functor

You can read this as follows: an API call is either a get request with an Id and a continuation that takes a Record or a create request with a Record and a continuation that takes an Id.

And then by applying Free we get a monadic language for free. But this is a bit cumbersome to use so we'll define some helper functions..

type Api = Free ApiF

get :: Id -> Api Record
get id = Free $ RequestGet id return

create :: Record -> Api Id
create record = Free $ RequestCreate record return

get wraps a RequestGet and puts return as the continuation to lift the return value into the monad, create does the same for RequestCreate.

Since we've established that having an intermediate representation is a good thing let's create another free monad that defines a program in terms of raw requests. Then we can write an interpreter that converts the program into this language.

data RawF f = Raw Method Path (Maybe RequestBody) (Response -> f) deriving Functor
type Raw = Free RawF

toRaw :: Api a -> Raw a
toRaw (Pure a) = Pure a
toRaw (Free (RequestGet id k)) =
  Free $ Raw "GET" (show id) Nothing (toRaw . k . fromJSON)
toRaw (Free (RequestCreate rec k)) =
  Free $ Raw "POST" "" (Just $ toJSON rec) (toRaw . k . fromJSON)

And finally we can run this.

client :: Raw -> IO Response

runRaw :: Raw a -> IO a
runRaw (Pure a) = return a
runRaw (Free (Raw method path body k)) = do
  res <- client method path body
  runRaw $ k res

runApi :: Api a -> IO a
runApi = runRaw . toRaw

Usage of this is fairly straightforward

program :: Api Bool
program = do
  newId <- create someRecord
  newRecord <- get newId
  return $ someRecord == newRecord

test :: IO Bool
test = runApi program

If I recall correctly the operational package defines some machinery that simplifies definition of our language and interpreters but I haven't used it yet so I'm not familiar with the details.

In either case you still have a closed set of operations that are defined by your functor. And modifying this functor requires modifying all existing interpreters for its free monad. But there are two more downsides. Some boilerplate is required to make usage of actions from our functor simple though this could probably be automated away. More importantly there are performance issues with Free in some cases.

Monad laws require the instance of Free to define >>= in a way that is associative. And it does that. But if you look at the definition of Free you will see that it closely resembles linked list [] which also has an associative concatenation operation ++. But ++ has performance problems if used in a certain way, namely repeatedly putting big lists on the left side. And Free's bind has this problem too. Everything is okay if you just use the do notation with simple actions as there will always the smallest possible instance on the left, but problems arise if you compose and nest instances of Free. And by problems I mean bind being linear in the size of the instance on the left. There is active work to mitigate this(e.g. Codensity and Reflection without Remorse) but it's out of the scope of this article.


I would argue that each of these approaches (except unsafe ADTs) has its pros and cons and therefore its place in some implementation. If I missed anything or made an error please let me know - I'll be happy to update the post.

Last modified on 2014-10-05